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The relationship between human beings and horses

dimanche 7 août 2011 par Joëlle Mirabaud


introduction
I : A flimsy relationship during prehistory and antiquity :
II : History of the war with horses :
III : Leisure and art :
IV : Economy based on horses :
conclusion
Bibliography

Introduction :
Relationships between human beings and horses have existed since prehistory. First horses, which were called Eohippus, appeared one million of years before human beings. During this period, horses were different than nowadays. In fact, they were smaller than current horses and they lived in forest. Then, because of the climat, they had to live out of forests and thank to that, their morphology changed in order to escape from their predators : Equus caballus, the first "true" horse was born.
Men and particulary, the first human beings, hunted it for a long time and as a consequence, relationships between human beings and horses were flimsy. With time, this relationship has improved thanks to two elements : first, horses’kind character, then, some riders will have tried to understand horses.
Nowadays, we can notice that there are more horsy people, riders and horse activities. However, we now that horses were often used as a tool according to the context and the period they lived in, that’s why, we are going to answer these questions :
- Why have human beings broken in horses ?
- What about this relationship nowadays ?

As a conséquence, we will, explain the évolution of this relationship from prehistory to nowadays.

I : A flimsy relationship during prehistory and antiquity :
1) Prehistoric men and horses :

"How long have horses haunted men’s spirit ?" A lot of people try to answer this enigma. However, the presence of horses in the prehistoric art and, in the same way, the diversity ofobjects that represent horses made with bones, ivory or also stones, led scientists to deduce that horses were considered as superior to other animals. ln fact, Cro-Magnon men often drew horses and so, this one was present in a lot of grottos like, for example, the grotto of Lascaux, the most famons prehistoric site. As a consequence, we can imagine that, at that time, men dreamt of building a friendly relationship with this animal which ran so faT and so fast.
However, horse, which looks like the Meren and the Przewalski, two current horse races, was considered as a prey.
For a long time, it bas been believed that to kill a lot of horses, hunters obliged them, after hunting them down, to throw from the top of a cliff because they panick. This belief, which is nowadays refuted, appeared in 1872, in a novel of Adrian Arcelin, who discovered a heap of horses’ bones in Solutre (Saône-et- Loire). ln fact, animals were killed thank to ambushes, at the bottom of the cliff, in a stony ground.
So, in France, horses were an important source of food and the discovery of heaps of bones proves it.

2) Tbe breaking in of horses :
Breeding and fanning were born in the Near East. Before being interested in horses, in the VII century BC, men domesticated beefs, goats, sheep and pigs. The beginning of the domestication of the noblest conquest of men was still uncertain. ln fact, the remains of horses, discovered in different prehistoric settings, do not tell us if these horses were domesticated or hunted. Nevertheless. since the Vth century BC. scientîsts began to find sorne reliable clues of horses’domestication.
Nowadays, the excavations indicated that around 3500 BC, ten centuries after their domestication, horses were harnessed and ridden in the east of Ural. ln those days, horses were rather ridden than harnessed because horsemanship was useful, for example, shepherds could look after twice as much sheep as on foot. This situation reminds us of the gardians of Camargue and the cowboys who use horses to look after their herds, even today.
Around 2500 BC, horses could trot and gallop with harnesses thanks to the creation of oxcart. Men could, in this way, conquer new territories with this animal which covered great distances.
From 2300 BC, there were more and more horses in central Europe and in Mesopotamia and the breaking in started in Greece. 300years after, horse riding was generalized, because Babylonian people drew riders in their works, and at that time, artists used to depict everyday lire events. We can also notice that a lot of sculptures, which were a credit to horses, were created during Antiquity (Appendix f.3 and 1.4). On severaI sculptures, we can analyse the relationship between human beings and horses, like an Ukrainian bow1 (IV century BC). This one is decorated with scenes showing us the trust between these two partners.

3) Legends and myths :
During the Bronze âge (from the XXlllrd to the XXllnd centuries BC), several states like the Amerindians sacrified horses so that horses and owners were not separated in death, as we can see in the sepultures showing warriors and their horses. During the Iron âge (800 to 475 BC), when a politician died, a horse was always killed !
On funeral bowls, during the Bronze âge, there were more and more patterns representing plough horses to the sun’s chariot. Sometimes, these horses werereplaced by birds, which couId explain the myth of Pegasus, the winged horse, was tamed by the goddess Athena who gave it to Bellerophon, a mythic rider. Bellerophon,thanks to Pegasus, could kill Chimera, a monster which terrorized everyone. However, his various victories led him to conquer the sky. Conseqnently, Zeus was angry and sent a horsefly. Pegasus reared up when the insect stung it and as a consequence, Bellerophon fell and Pegasus carried on his race in the firmament and became a constellation !
The Centaur, a horse with a head and a human chest, is also a mythic animal. We can suppose that the first men who saw a rider and a horse, oould imagine this hybrid being. This image of a horse obedient to a man, in spite of its vivacity and power, is also used nowadays. ln fact, a good rider, who gets on his horse, is said to be a Centaur !
The myth of the Unicorn, which appeared in Ancient Greece is also famous. This animal, which is half a wild donkey half a she-goat, was first called Monoceros. ln mythology, the Monoceros was the son of the she-goat Amalthea of which only a horn was kept. ln the Middle Ages, the Monoceros became the unicorn. Some people considered it as a kind animal, symbol of peace but for others, it was a ferocious one. However, the Unicorn had a weak point because when a young and beautiful virgin sat in the forest, the Unicorn came and slept near her. This mythic animal could purify poisoned water with his horn.
Some legends were born in France, such as Blanque, the mare of the Pas-de-Calais, which "spread" terror at nightfall, or also in the Doubs, where a beautiful white horse took travellers in order to drown them in the river.
A lot of people idealized horses thanks to their color. For à while, a black horse represented death or on the contrary, youth and power. A white horse was the symbol of purity, divinity, besides, kings’ horses were white such as Napoleon’s horse or Pegasus. However, white horses could also symbolize destructions or corpses as Blanque.
Several civilizations like the Amerindians gave an interpretation for each color : red horses (bay and chesnut) for the Kiowas, was the favourite mount of the sun. Blue horses (dapple grey horse) was the best charger, according to the Navajos. ln fact, in mythology, the sun rode these horses all day. White horses were only used in the morning and were considered as tireless, because the sun always moves ! The yellow mare (palomino and ligh chesnut) whose colour reminds us the colour of maize, was a present of the "changing woman", the goddess of the fertility and also a lunar divinity. Horses, whose colors were mixed, were in great demand because they were told to have all the wanted quaIities.
As a consequence, some races were said to be created by a god, like the pure-bred Arab horse, the most beautiful horse race. The legend said that this horse was created by Allah with a handful of south wind.

II : History of the war with horses :
1) The Greek cavalry :

The first real armies were created in 1500 BC. But they became really used for wars from the time of the Greek empire. Owning a horse was a sign of wealth and being in the cavalry a social distinction. Athenians endowed themselves with a regular cavaIry in the middle of the Vth century, made up of 500, then more tban 1000 citizens. Those citizens were from the two first eligible voter classes, the second was besides called "hippeis". Every day, they were paid by the city in order to take care of horses. Riders were armed with 2 spears and a sword. They did not wear any breastplate but a big coat and a bonnet. They rode out with saddle or stirrup and had long hear .

2) Alexander the Great :
A very famous and mythic horse was Bucephale (appendix II.l). It was the one of Alexander the Great, son of king Philip of Macedonia, whose name means "’friend of horses" in Greek. Alexander and Bucephale, his borse were almost the same age,both died in their early thirties’. Together, they conquered the world.
Bucephale was from the best race of Thessalia, Greek region from where centaurs were born. We can say Alexander and Bucephale were the personification of these creatures. Bucephale, whose name means "head of bull" was black and had a white star on its forehead. It was bigger than most of the horses of that time. 1t was so fiery that nobody had ever succeeded in riding it. Alexander, who was 12 but who had already done some battles and was a good rider, decided to try this horse. He began studying its beihaviour and realised the animal was afraid of its shadow, and of people’s. The young boy succeeded in putting the horse in front of the sun and in riding it.
Since that day, Bucephale had let valets riding it bareback, but when it had the royal saddlery, only Alexander was accepted.
Fot 20 years, Alexander and Bucephale had fought together. One of their most famous victories was the one against Darius the Great, the Persian imperator, at Issos in 333BC. The mythic couple extended borders of the Greek empire from Egypt, where the king founded Alexandrie, to fndia.
Bucephale died in the battle of Hydaspe against Pôros, Indian king of Pendjab, in 329BC. Alexander burried his horse with military honors and founded there the town Bucephalia.

3) Knighthood :
In the Middle-Ages, each knight had to have 5 or 6 horses at their disposaI. Horses were fragile on battle fields where they could be exhausted, injured, captured by the enemies or killed.There were different types of horses for different uses. The worst ones, "roncins" and mares brought people and luggage. The best stallions, the "dextriers’" were used for wars. They were called like that because they were led with the right hand (the dexter). Robust horses from Germany and England were imported, but the most highly prized horses were from breeding in of Arabians from Andalusia ; they were squat so as to be able to bring a man with 30 kg of armour and weapons and to set off at a gallop.
In 1214, the chest and flanks of horses for wars began to be barded with iron. Shoeing with nails had already equiped the hooves of horses in Europe since the IVth century. The horse’s equipment was made up of the bard and the nose.
The bard was the armour which protected the horse. It was articulated at the neck. For tournaments, borse usually had only the nose. The nose protected the head of the horse, with an articulated part which was pulled down over the back of the head. There was very often a point of near 20 cm in the center of the nose, like a unicorn. With all that weight and the rigidity of this equipment, we can imagine the tiredness of the horse, the vulnerability of the knight down and the stifling warmth in summer. Nowadays, we can see performances of knighthood and tournaments at the "Puy du fou", a French leisure park.

4) Napoleon the First :
Napoleon the First had an Arabian thorough bred called Vizir. It was a white horse with mottled hair. Given in 1804 by the sultan of Turkey, that horse followed the Imperor in his exile to Saint-Helena in 1 815. Coming back to England after Napoleon’s death, it was brought back to France and died in 1826. It was stuffed and is now showed since 1904 in the museum of the Army in "Hotel des Invalides" in Paris

III : LElSURE AND ART :
1) Tournaments :

Tournaments appeared in the XIth century. Until the XIIIth century, they could be compared to a battle during a war. Several strong teams fought over the victory in front of experts. A tournament took place in a large area including castles or cities, woods and fields. When the signal was given, 2 or 3 groups of several hundred of warriors rushed at each other furiously. The on1y difference between a toumament and a war were the few areas where fighters could rest. ln these tournaments, horses had to get into a gallop. They were only a mean of transport.
As well as fame, gain was the first appeal of tournaments. Indeed, knights could win a prize, but also horses, arrnours, weapons and even money from the ransom of the loser who was considered as war captive. At the end of the tournament, a big fair of horses was organised.
From the XIVth century, toumaments became jousts, which brought together two knights in a small area. These tournaments became festive and more playfull than warlike.
Tournaments disappeared in 1559, after the death of the French King Henry II, injured during one of them.

2) Games in the Middle-Ages :
Violent tournaments handed over to simulations of battles, but simulations of singular fighfs were also appreciated. Traditional jousts also resisted well changing times. ln the XVIth century, strict laws were adopted so as to prevent accidents. Participating warriors wore an armour on which a target was drawn (the only point that opponents had to touch with their spear).
The games spectators prefered were the Saracin (also called "’piquet de Maure") and the game of heads and the carrousel. The Saracin consisted in touching a puppet called Saracin staying on the course with a long spear, into a gallop (in the Middle-Ages, the Saracin was sometime a real man : thieves and othcr criminals).
The game of heads was a parody of epic fights, The layers had to touch, with 4 different weapons, fictitious monsters in wood or in cloth, and of course to cut their heads.
The carrousel was called like that because of the hollow bowl in clay that had to be thrown on the opponent’s shield. It was played by teams of 2 riders. Like in tournaments, horses were only a mean of transport. Horses were not bred in a specific way. 3) Art, Academies and competitions. The discovery of hittite tablets gave the first principles of the equestrian art. Tablets deals with the training of horses used for fight charriot.
Later, Greeks and Romans used horses not only for war and for sports, but also for games. However, Antiquity did not influence and lunch horse art. The first important work made on art was that of the Greek Xenophon, in the IVth century BC. The second most important one 1ater, was the one of Frederico Grisone, "Gli ordini di cavacare", in 1550. During that time, things changed a lot, sedentary populations like the Chinese began to use horses too. ln the VIIth century, Arabian people, coming from south Italy and from Spain, infiuenced riding in Western Europe. They made the basis of the European riding of the Renaissance.
In the ltalian Renaissance, the first Academies and schools of riding were created. ln south Italy, a group of riders created a horse academy. ln the XVIth century, Frederico Grisone revived the academy of Naples. In 1534, the ltalian Cesare Fiaschi found his own academy. The ltalian Gian Battista Pignatelli trained 2 famous French riders : Salomon de la Broue and Antoine de Pluvinel.
ln the next century, François Robichon de la Guérinière (said to be the father of French riding) triumphed at the royal ring of the Tuileries with his horse show of art.
History of the high riding is linked to the one of monarchs and of courts. It contributed to the prestige of the state, enriched military art and was the pleisure of princes and nobles.
At the beginning of the XXth century, classic riders (horse for leisure) and sportive ones confronted each other in their way of riding. Jumping was more and more preferred including in the "Haute EcoIe". ln 1900, breeding in and jumping joined the sports of the Olympic games of Paris. The first French Olympic champion in jump was Dominique Maximilien Gardères, in 1900.
ln 1952, the Olympic games opened to every rider. The US influence in riding increased a lot : in 1953 the club of lasso in the "Bois de Boulogne" in Paris was created.

4) Horse shows :
The XVIth ccntury was the beginning of horse shows, and particulary in Naples. Composers rivaled of imagination so as to create, a new horse choreography in each show. Horses made a 1ot of complex figures, which were divided up in 3 acts : greatness of the horse, walk and special figures. and the third was for other figures. Very often, shows ended by a parade in circle or half -circle and then by a procession behind a decorated float.
The Aristocrats of the XVIth century appreciated "Haute Ecole", which became a real part of people’s everyday life and even a show of street, again particularly in Naples. Riding in the town represented for people an oppurtunity to show their talents. Circuses were also a good representation of horse shows, ln France, that was in 1767 that Beates, an English man, showed a circus in Paris on a simple area surrounded with boardings. The course was separated from the public with only a rope. ln 1774, a friend of Beates, called Hyam, came to the same place and showed similar entertainments unti11778, when Beates came back. The following year, Balph and his wife, both riders, went on with that show. ln that time, in circuses, people admired horses which reacted sometimes like a pet, for instance, horses could sit down like a dog, the fight between the English tailor and his horse.
A lot of circuses appeared as early as 1178, but it was in 1835, because of a ministerial decision, that M. Franconi and Ferdinand Lalou were allowed to give horse shows, in the "Champs Elysées" in summer. They first used a large tent in the "Carré Marigny". Under the Restauration and later under Louis-Phippe, the "Champs Elysée" was a wonderful place. The olympic circus became the place of famous meetings, where the famous rider Baucher was applauded. From 7o’clock in the evening, it was impossible to find a place. 3000 people came there to applaude these shows. Even Adolphe Franconi, the director of the circus showed wonderful horses bringing back a flower, a flag, a chair... and a lot of money for the director.
Finally, the last similar circus, the Paris Circus, opened in 1910 near the Military School.

5) Historic of the horse racing :
The use of horses for race began in the Antiquity, particularly for the Olympic Games in Greece. ln 680 BC, for the 25th Olympiad, the first horse races took place in the racecourse of Olympia (775m long and 320m wide). They were competitions for quadrigas (a chariot pulled by 4 horses) and some years 1ater for biges (a chariot pulled by 2 horses).
In the Olympic Games, there were also races of ridden horses. Riders rode bareback (without any saddle and spurs). Horses had to run round the racecourse 6 times.
In the Antique Rome, these races took place in a famous place : the Circus Maximus. It was 620n1 long and 180m wide.
In the Antiquity, horse races were appreciated a lot. That is shown by the presence of a lot of circuses all around the Mediterranean Bassin.
In the first centuries of the Christian time and in the Middle-Ages, horse races were still appreciated. They already existed under Charlemagne.
It is Richard Lion’s Heart who organized in Europe the first race and who endowed it with 40gold pounds. He also set the introduction of Arabian horses. ln the XVIth century, in Englarid, a new race appeared : the steeple-chase (ancestor of our actual cross-country race).

In France, under the Restauration, horse races took place in the "Champ de Mars" and became an annual event. They were presided and followed by the count of Artois, who become Charles the Xth. Then, Louis Philip was not interested in these horse races and, as a consequence, tbese races were presided by bis son, the duke of Orleans. In 1834, there were 18 racecourses in France and in 1836 trotting races were created by a former officer of stud ferm, Ephrem Houel.
Paris owned a lot of racecourses, like the one of Alma. On the 3rd of July 1845, the racecourse of the star was founded, ran by Laurent Franconi, Victor Franconi and Fernand Laloue. That building was demolished in 1849. In 1852, Napoleon III unveiled the Napoleon Circus, the Cirque d"Hiver as we called it today. The racecourse of the Porte Dauphine, built in 1854 and ran by M. Arnaud, disapeared in 1869. In Rue de Lyon, there were horse shows in a building called "the national arenas". ln 1877, a new racecourse was presented to Parisians, Place Vichy. 8000 peop1e could be welcomed, had a race of 84m on 48 and a stable of 200 horses. It was open from March to September.
Actually, many horse races are distinguished, according to the length of the course, the age of horses, the specificity of race (flat or with fences)...
A rule stated that aIl big events are reserved for thorough bred, but they were also races for half thorough bred old of more than 3.

IV : Economy based on horses :
1) The biginning of the trade :

For a while, trade existed thanks to horses, because men could, in this way, travel across countries. ln fact, the generalization and the improvement of horse riding led to the booming of’ the trade between men of different civilizations. Furthermore, the interest for the breaking in during Antiquity and the use of horses for several activities made the number of purchases increase : farmers bought carthorses and draft horses for their work and horse breeders bought saddle borses, like today, for riding schools. For example, Friesen and Connemara made different tasks according to the period.
Friesen was first used by warriors and towed diligences before working in farms, The Royal society of Holland’s breeding tried to convert Friesen to the circus and to the harnessing like today in France. Connemara, were used for farm work and, it also helped workers to extract coalin mines. Nowadays, this race is present in riding schools for leisure and jumping.

2) Cinema, and films :
A lot of films which put horses on stage were released recently like :
- "The whisperer" made by R.Redford in 1998, which deals with a girl, Grace, who lost her leg and her best friend in an accident when they rode in the snow. Grace’s horse, Pilgrim, was traumatized and badly hurt. That’s why, Annie Maclean (Kristin Scott Thomas), Grace’s mother, decided to meet a whisperer, Tom Booker (R.Redford) in order to save Pilgrim and, at the samle time, her daughter. In this film we can see different methods, used by whisperers, tohelp horses and riders. This method, called "the natural-horse man ship" used for exmple by Pat Parellî in Montana, is based on the horses’ psychology, in order to respect horses and at the same time, their freedom.
- "Knights" made by B.Helgeland in 200 l, reminds us of the history of a poor man, William, who wanted to change his life and become a knight. However, this job was only reserved for noblemen. One day, he succeeded in becoming a knight by taking a false identity. As a consequence, he carried on tournaments with success and he won a lot of prizes. Nevertheless, his rival discovered bis real past and tried to harm him. ln this film, we can discover the life of a knight in the 14th century and how tournaments were organised in the MiddIe-Ages.
- "Purebred" made by G.Ross in 2003, is the true history of Seabiscuit, a race horse. Story’s Seabiscuit began in the United States, during the economic slump. His race’s results were bad, and as a consequence, no trainer and jockey wanted to look after him, moreover, this horse was considered as aggressive. One day, a rich man decided to buy him and Tom Smith (C.Cooper), a prévioug mustang’s horsebreaker, became his trainer. Tom discovered that Seabiscuit couJd become a champion, but. it was at odds with himself. However, thanks to the jockey Red Pollard (T.Maguire), Seabiscuit became one of the best champions of the races’ history. Seabiscuit, won 33 out of 89 races and brought in 380000€ , which was considerable in those days.
- Save those three films, which illustrate the diversity of the theme, we can find "Such beautiful horses" of B.Bob in 2000, "Mister V" the most recent one, relcased in october 2003. Some cartoons also describe adventures with horses like "Lucky Luke", "Spirit" and also "Hercules"...
These films have attracted a lot of people because they describe the lire of some star horses as Seabiscuit or they present problems and relationship between the riders and their horses.

3) Horse shows :
The number of shows and circuses using horses is booming. ln fact, nowadays we can visit a lot of sites, for instance :
- The Grand stable ànd the Small Stable of Versailles were unveiled by Louis XIV in 1682. At the beginning, we could find in the Grand Stable battle horses, school horses, hunters... Some famous riders went to this "school of Versailles", home of the most prestigious cavalry of the 18th century, such as Gaspard de Saunier (1663-1748) or the viscount d’Absac (1744-1827). In those days, being a great horseman was prestigious. However, it closed in 1830, because of the Revolution.
Nowadays, the Grand Stable which is located near the "Château de Versailles" has now been restored to its original purpose with the opening of the Academy of Equestrian Arts, under the stewardship of Bartabas since march 2002. During the Horse Riders morning sessions, people coud watch the equestrian figures of the equerries and their horses inside the main arena and also discover the historical stables of Versailles and their thirty horses.
- The museum of Chantilly was created, in 1982, by Yves Bienaimé in the Grand Stable of Chantilly. People can here discover the ring of relaxation, see new showrooms and shows such as "The blue little imp" in december 2003 and "The dream of Lili" in december 2002, whose themes were Christmas, children and, of course, horses. This museum has put on stage more than 500 shows since its creation !
Bartabas, after the first production of the circus "’Aligre", also created his shows, mingling theatre, danse and horse riding, such as "Zingaro" the name of his Friesen, in 1984 and "Triptyk".
We can also notice the success of the "Mane of god", show made in 2002 by Frédéric Pignon and Magali Delgado, two famous shows’ riders, in Avignon.
Futhernore, most countries have their own national horse school like the school of Lisbon or Saumur. This last one was created in 1771 and took the best students of the king’s regiments in those days. Some of them were famous as colonel Wattel, the best rider of the century. In 1814, Saumur became the "Cadre Noir"

4) Horse races :
We can say that horse races have existed for a long time because Romans practised them and futhermore, we know that Neron liked races of "oxcart". However, the first trottings race under saddle began at the begining of the XIXth century, when the farmers had fun, on Sunday, to confront their "fellow workets". But attitudes have changed and nowadays horse races attract a lot of people and not only punters or owners, contrary to the beginning. For instance, there are 7.000.000 punters in France who spent 6.000.000.700 € in 2001, that is to say a six percent increase a year compared to the previous year. Moreover, there are more and more people who eam their living with races and they were in 2001, three hundred "gentlemen-riders" (or amateur jockeys) for the gallop and one thousand for the trot.
ln spire of the success of this leisure, we can notice that fewer people came to see races. We can explain it by the fact that it is not curnpulsory to bet on horses in the racecourses. In fact, some channels as "Equidia", the horses’ channel, and "Canal+", allow us to watch races at home and we can bet everywhere.
Some horses have been patticularly used for horse races litre the French trotteur since the XIX century, because of his fast trot, and the pure-bred English horse, because of its speed.

5) Jobs using horses :
Our society tries to use horses and consequently, equestrian jobs keep on growing. However, it is difficult to get a job with horses because of the competition,there are 53.810 employments, of which 20.000 for horse races, and 650.000 riders ! Indeed, this kind of jobs is sometimes under paid despite difficulties and constraints. Nevertheless, some people decide to dedicate their lives to their passion : horses.
Nowadays, there are around 1l.285 employees for breeding, horse riding and 4.336 instructors. Sometimes "horses take the place of machines" like for example for the docker.
Horses could also help to bring together citizens and the authorities, we can notice it for horse guards, or policemen with horses. "ln fact, people are often impressed by this animal and as a consequence, people are reassured when they see this unit. In this way, people respect more policemen (...)" says Jean-Joël Schindler, the person in charge of the departmental equestrian unit of Seine et Marne. The first horse squad was created in 1994, in the park of the Courneuve.

We can also notice that disabled people could be rehabilitated thanks to therapists and horses.
Some jobs are really hard as horse breeders, jockeys, ostlers...Iln fact, horse breeders have a great job, they breed their own and sometimes, win a competition, but they also have to take care of horses at any time as they work six or seven days a week, from six o’clock to the evening, all the year !
Jockeys have to respect several rules, particularly for their weight. Here is the day of a jockey : Saturday, six o’clock in the morning. He weighs 61 kg and it is not allowed to exceed 63 kg. Then he prepares his day, the jockey bas, sometimes, to do a lot of mileage. From 3pm to 8pm, he is in the racecourse. Then, he comes back and he takes care of horses.
These horsy people have a hard day, but they like their lives and they choose to spend their time with horses, don’t they ?

Conclusion
From Prehistory to nowadays, relationships between human beings and horses have improved a lot. At the beginning of the world, horses were considered by people as preys because of their flesh and of their coat.
Then, after a period of hunt of horses, buman beings discovered the real nature of these animals. They used their qualities and their strengths for works such as field works, but also in art, for leisure, like horse racing, during wars and for trade. This was the beginning of a real relationship.
Nowadays, things are different. Horses are no longer used for trade and wars. But they carry on playing an important role for leisure and art. lndeed, lots of people are now interested in these wonderful animals. A growing number of people love horse-riding. Today, horses corne back into fashion, that is why they are often used in films and shows. Horses play now an important part in our society, which shows the new strong relationship between these animals and us, human beings.
Since the dawn of time, horses have always fascinated human beings, and we hope they will go on for a long time.

Bibliography
We create this work thanks to several books, articles, web sites such as :
- Bertrand De PERTHUIS, le Larousse du cheval, Larousse 1998.
- Emmanuelle DE MONLEON, Destins de chevaux, Proxima 2001
- Pierre ENOFF, Le nouveau manuel du cavalier, Solar 2001
- Sibylle LUISE BINDER and Gabrièle KARCHER, La vie fascinante des chevaux, Larousse 2002
- Jan FRAUZE, Cheval, amour et passion, Favre 2002
- Catherine BOLAC and Pierre MIRISKI, Chevaux et poneys, Rustica Editions 2004.
- Several articles of Cheval-magasine from August 2001 to January 2004.
- http://www.agoca.com/asp/article


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